Who uses radiometric dating
Climate science required the invention and mastery of many difficult techniques.
These had pitfalls, which could lead to controversy.
An example of the ingenious technical work and hard-fought debates underlying the main story is the use of radioactive carbon-14 to assign dates to the distant past.
For other examples, see the essays on Temperatures from Fossil Shells and Arakawa's Computation Device.
A stronger field would tend to shield the planet from particles from the Sun, diverting them before they could reach the atmosphere to create carbon-14.
and "not very attractive."(8) However, solar specialists knew that the number of particles shot out by the Sun varies with the eleven-year cycle of sunspots.
But what looks like unwelcome noise to one specialist may contain information for another.
The best way to transfer the exacting techniques was in the heads of the scientists themselves, as they moved to a new job.
Tricks also spread through visits between laboratories and at meetings, and sometimes even through publications.
The radioactive isotope carbon-14 is created in the upper atmosphere when cosmic-ray particles from outer space strike nitrogen atoms and transform them into radioactive carbon.
Some of the carbon-14 might find its way into living creatures.
Also, the Sun’s own magnetic field varies with the cycle, and that could change the way cosmic particles bombarded the Earth.